By Eirliani Abdul Rahman
The United Nations released a Global Assessment Report on 6 May 2019 in Paris, a health check of our planet, if you will, compiled over three years by more than 450 scientists and diplomats. The message is stark: 1 million, out of the estimated 8 million of our planet’s plant and animal species are at risk of extinction, thanks to human activities. Many will be gone within decades unless action is taken.
Two in five amphibian species are in danger of extinction, as are one third of reef-forming corals, and almost one third of other marine species. One in 10 insects are threatened with extinction.
Our Human Footprint
The report highlights how our human footprint is so large, it leaves little space for anything else: 75% of all land is being used for agriculture, covered by concrete, swallowed by dam reservoirs or otherwise significantly altered. 85% of the world’s wetlands have vanished since the 18th century. Two thirds of the marine environment have been changed by aqua culture, shipping routes, subsea mines etc. 75% of rivers and lakes are used for crop or livestock cultivation. As a result, more than 500,000 species do not have sufficient habitats for their survival. Many will disappear within decades.
Agriculture and fishing are the primary causes. Food production has increased since the 1970s, which has helped feed a burgeoning global population, generating jobs and economic growth. But this has come at a price: Grazing areas for cattle account for about 25% of the world’s ice-free land and more than 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
In contrast, crop production uses 12% of land and creates less than 7% of emissions.
In Indonesia, cutting down rainforest to make way for palm oil plantations has destroyed the habitat of critically endangered orangutans and Sumatran tigers. In Mozambique, ivory poachers helped kill nearly 7000 elephants between 2009 and 2011 alone.
Also, our waste is overwhelming the Earth’s capacity to absorb them. More than 80% of waste water is pumped into rivers, lakes and oceans without treatment, along with 300m to 400m tons of heavy metals, toxic slurry etc. Plastic waste has risen ten times since 1980, affecting 86% of marine turtles, 44% of seabirds and 43% of marine mammals.
At the same time, a new threat has emerged: global warming. Approximately 5% of species worldwide are threatened with climate-related extinction if global average temperatures rise 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, the report. The world has already warmed by 1 degree. When populations are already small and losing genetic diversity, and landscapes are becoming fragmented, and when plants and animals can’t move to find more suitable habitats, we have a problem.
It is not just about the animals and the trees. This change in biodiversity will affect us all. Today, we are relying on significantly fewer varieties of plants and animals for food. Of the 6190 domesticated mammal breeds used in agriculture, more than 559 have become extinct and 1000 more are threatened. What this means is that the food system is becoming less resilient against diseases and pests. And it may become harder in the future to breed new, hardier crops and livestock to cope with global warming.
A radical re-think is necessary, according to the report’s authors. Piecemeal efforts to protect individual species are no longer be sufficient. “Transformative changes” are needed to curb wasteful consumption, reduce down agriculture’s environmental footprint and crack down on poachers and illegal logging and reducing the flow of heavy metals and untreated wastewater into the environment.
What Can We Do?
Each year, the US, where I live, throws away nearly 40% of its food. 70% of water and 50% of land in the US is devoted to agriculture. So when we are chucking out food, it’s a tremendous waste of resources. About 33 million cars’ worth of greenhouse gases are produced to grow food that never gets eaten. According to the US Department of Agriculture(pdf document), that adds up to more than $160 billion wasted per year.
How can we reduce food wastage?
Let’s all do our part to prevent the extinction of our planet’s species.
Published on June 24, 2019.
Eirliani Abdul Rahman is co-founder of YAKIN (Youth, Adult Survivors & Kin In Need), an NGO working in the field of child rights and child protection issues, and a member of Twitter’s Safety & Trust Council. She is also Senior Assistant Director at the Singapore National Council of Social Service and has been seconded to head Operations and Programmes at Caregivers Alliance, a non-profit organisation that helps caregivers of those with mental health issues in Singapore.
In September 2015, the #FullStop to #childsexualabuse campaign that Eirliani led on behalf of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Kailash Satyarthi reached 16 million people over six weeks. She won the BMW Foundation Responsible Leaders Award the same year.
Eirliani edited Nobel Peace Prize laureate Kailash Satyarthi’s book Will for Children, a collection of essays on child labour published in 2016. Her book on true accounts by survivors of child sexual abuse Survivors: Breaking the Silence on Child Sexual Abuse was published by Marshall Cavendish in 2017. It won joint second prize in the 2020 Golden Door Awards.
She also contributed a case study to the medical textbook Essentials of Global Health, co-edited by Babulal Sethia, Past President and Global Health Lead of the Royal Society of Medicine, which was published by Elsevier in London in 2018. The book won first prize in the Public Health category at the 2019 British Medical Association book awards.
Eirliani was in the Singapore Foreign Service from 2005 to 2015, serving in Berlin as First Secretary (Political) and then in Delhi as Political Counsellor. From June 2015 to November 2017, she was a member of the Advisory Council of the Global Diplomacy Lab. She is a Fellow of the London-based Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce.
Eirliani lives in Singapore. She speaks Malay, English, German and Russian.
Read more about Eirliani in her latest blog article. You can also read her articles about her polar expedition, about human trafficking, the injustice of the Brexit for the British Youth and learn more about her work, activism and contribution to the Gender Alliance.